Personal interview is a most common way to study the public opinion on any issue. Personal contact of the interviewer and the respondent allows to obtain answers to complicated questions of the questionnaire, to use visual aids (pictures, photos, packing, logotypes).
The types of personal interview depending on the purpose and targets are as follows:
1. Interview at the respondent’s place of residence,
2. Interview at the respondent’s working place,
3. street interview,
4. point of sales interview.
In a personal telephone interview one quickly obtains the necessary information contacting a lot of respondents in a short period of time. The telephone survey is convenient for collection of information from individual persons (city residents, consumers of certain goods etc.) as well as from legal entities (directors, managers of organizations etc.). Telephone numbers base (for legal entities) or a random numbers list generated by special software (for individual persons) is used for a telephone survey. As a rule a telephone interview is recorded allowing the manager as well as the client to control the quality and progress of work.
CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing)
It is a telephone personal interview carried out using a computer system. This method allows to conduct telephone interviews controlled by a centralized computer system. CATI offers a quick result for a broad sampling of population, high quality of data collection, quick processing of great quantities of telephone numbers, complex transfers and automatic control of quotas, it excludes operator’s mistakes and gives an opportunity to have audio recording of all interviews.
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing is a technology using computer during personal interview (desktop or laptop). The interviewer uses the computer to put down the respondents’ answers or the respondent answers the questions of a questionnaire on its own using a computer. This technology avoids the influence of the interviewer (if the respondent answers the questions on its own), it allows complex transfers and automatic control of quotas, it excludes operator’s mistakes and gives an opportunity to obtain high quality and reliable data.
The hall-test purpose is individual testing of the product, its packing, accompanying promotion materials. As a rule the hall-test is conducted in a specially prepared room in crowded areas. This method affords an opportunity to obtain quickly the opinion of the target audience as regards the advantages and drawbacks of the tested product, its advantages in comparison with competitors’ products, properties that need improvement.
The home-test purpose is testing of the products in realistic environment. Most often it takes place in the places of the product use, for example, at the respondent’s home.
CAWI - Computer Assisted Web Interview (computer system of on-line interviewing).
CAWI tests enable its user to conduct virtually all traditional tests at optimal expenses and to use new and non-standard methods. CAWI is a technique applying a computer connected to Internet during personal interview. The interviewer uses the computer to put down the respondents’ answers or the respondent answers the questions of a questionnaire on its own using a computer. This technology avoids the influence of the interviewer (if the respondent answers the questions on its own), it allows complex transfers and automatic control of quotas, it excludes operator’s mistakes and gives an opportunity to obtain high quality and reliable data. The data is directly uploaded to the shared server and processed.
On-line tests contemplate the use of a computer when looking for a respondent as well as when the interview is conducted. On-line panel is the aggregate of prospective respondents and a tool of marketing research. An electronic letter is sent to the presumably suitable respondent meeting the predetermined criteria inviting him(her) to participate in the research. Invitation of various respondents for participation in on-line panel, the quality control system and a very low cost allow to consider on-line tests to be prospective development area.
The purpose of these types of research is analysis of the range, prices, distribution and merchandising materials in retail shops.
The store checking method comprises research of retail and small-scale wholesale shops aimed at the study of the range of goods and price characteristic features of the goods and brands; monitoring of availability and price for various brands in the retail and small-scale wholesale network; study of commercial offers as regards advertising and business mass media.
Methods of collection of primary data: personal interview, observation, questionnaire survey in the points of sale, telephone inquiry. This methodology renders possible obtaining of reliable data if the traders refuse to furnish the information of their activity. Store-check is used as a part of the complex analysis of the state and prospects of development of a certain sector of consumer goods market (together with qualitative methods, expert polls, consumer inquiry).
Retail audit is monitoring of changes of various goods characteristics (price, range of goods, representation in sales points, sales volume) taking into consideration the changing market environment and the competitors’ activity. Retail audit allows to research retail over time: range of products of various groups of goods in retail, placement of goods in salesrooms, variety of packing, price level of competing brands etc.
The purpose of mystery shopping is assessment of quality of the service using the opportunity to see and assess the performance of the servicing personnel from the point of view of a real consumer. The method solves the following tasks:
research and quality control of the service the clients have when interacting with trade and service companies,
control of performance of the service personnel,
meeting servicing and retail standards, merchandising standards,
audit of advertising and promotional events etc.
Types of MysteryShopping
Mystery Shopping: visits to sales points, purchase of goods in shops, return of the goods and other complicated scenarios
Mystery Calling: calls to sales points in order to have a consultation as regards the goods/service, calls to sales points in order to conduct price monitoring
Mystery Viewer: supervision of the personnel work, observation of the shop and point of sales atmosphere